python实现迷宫游戏实例源代码-泓源视野

python实现迷宫游戏实例源代码

迷宫算法总结篇中我总结了生成迷宫的四种算法,在这一篇文章里面我侧重迷宫游戏的实现以及可视化。

使用python3中的GUI绘图库tkinter实现了一个简陋版的迷宫游戏,地图截图如下图所示。
python实现迷宫游戏实例源代码插图
为了降低游戏的难度,在寻找路径的过程中你可以通过点击图中的空白点,生成从起点到你点击位置的路径。迷宫的难度主要由以下几个参数决定:

  • 迷宫的长和宽:尺寸越大,生成的地图越难
  • 迷宫生成算法:地图难度:kruskal算法 > 随机深度优先算法 > prim算法 > 递归分割算法。

目前已经开发到版本1.0.7,已经实现的功能有:

当前版本代码在Maze-game-v1.0.7.

  •  游戏背景音乐
  •  游戏难度递增
  •  增加状态栏显示状态信息
  •  作弊(查看提示)增加惩罚分数(当前作弊一次惩罚20分)
  •  保存读取地图
  •  菜单栏,可用于设置地图生成算法,地图尺寸等
  •  增加迷雾模式
  •  增加生存模式,参考Roguelike Vision Algorithms丰富可玩性
  •  显示等级以及当前移动步数
  •  随机生成游戏地图
  •  按方向键后自动前进倒退(到分岔路停止)
  •  起点到任意位置辅助路径显示(鼠标左键单击空白地方显示路线) 移动次数计数
  •  到达终点后通关,按任意键进入下一关(目前没有难度设置,难度相同)

出现过的bug列表:

  •  到达终点后上下左右键仍然可用且不会进入到下一关
    已解决:修改进入下一关的逻辑
  •  画图很慢,不知道是我代码写的垃圾还是这个python的tkinter库本身的问题[狗头]
    已解决:刷新也面前调用Canvas.delete(“all”)清除之前绘制的所有内容再画新的页面即可。
  •  通关后生成的地图绘制的就更慢了,按一次方向键后要等一年[狗头]
    已解决:同上

最新版本截图

1 简单模式
python实现迷宫游戏实例源代码插图1
2 迷雾模式
python实现迷宫游戏实例源代码插图2

详细的介绍以及说明后续补充。现在提供1.0.3版本源码清单如下,为了方便代码管理,后续版本代码将会直接上传到Github,目前已经更新到v1.0.7,最新版本代码Maze-game-v1.0.7.

  • 迷宫类 Maze:
    ├ print_matrix
    ├ generate_matrix_dfs
    ├ generate_matrix_prim
    ├ generate_matrix_kruskal
    ├ generate_matrix_split
    ├ find_path_dfs
    └ find_path_bfs (TODO)
  • 并查集类 UnionSet:
    ├ find
    └ union
  • 可视化:
    ├ draw_cell
    ├ draw_path
    ├ draw_maze
    ├ check_reach
    ├ _eventHandler
    ├ _paint
    ├ _reset
    └ update_maze

迷宫算法源码 mazeGenerator.py

import numpy as npimport timeimport randomimport copyclass UnionSet(object):"""	并查集实现,构造函数中的matrix是一个numpy类型	"""def __init__(self, arr):self.parent = {pos: pos for pos in arr}self.count = len(arr)def find(self, root):if root == self.parent[root]:return rootreturn self.find(self.parent[root])def union(self, root1, root2):self.parent[self.find(root1)] = self.find(root2)class Maze(object):"""	迷宫生成类	"""def __init__(self, width = 11, height = 11):assert width >= 5 and height >= 5, "Length of width or height must be larger than 5."self.width = (width // 2) * 2 + 1self.height = (height // 2) * 2 + 1self.start = [1, 0]self.destination = [self.height - 2, self.width - 1]self.matrix = Noneself.path = []def print_matrix(self):matrix = copy.deepcopy(self.matrix)for p in self.path:matrix[p[0]][p[1]] = 1for i in range(self.height):for j in range(self.width):if matrix[i][j] == -1:print('□', end = '')elif matrix[i][j] == 0:print(' ', end = '')elif matrix[i][j] == 1:print('■', end = '')print('')def generate_matrix_dfs(self):# 地图初始化,并将出口和入口处的值设置为0self.matrix = -np.ones((self.height, self.width))self.matrix[self.start[0], self.start[1]] = 0self.matrix[self.destination[0], self.destination[1]] = 0visit_flag = [[0 for i in range(self.width)] for j in range(self.height)]def check(row, col, row_, col_):temp_sum = 0for d in [[0, 1], [0, -1], [1, 0], [-1, 0]]:temp_sum += self.matrix[row_ + d[0]][col_ + d[1]]return temp_sum <= -3def dfs(row, col):visit_flag[row][col] = 1self.matrix[row][col] = 0if row == self.start[0] and col == self.start[1] + 1:returndirections = [[0, 2], [0, -2], [2, 0], [-2, 0]]random.shuffle(directions)for d in directions:row_, col_ = row + d[0], col + d[1]if row_ > 0 and row_ < self.height - 1 and col_ > 0 and col_ < self.width - 1 and visit_flag[row_][col_] == 0 and check(row, col, row_, col_):if row == row_:visit_flag[row][min(col, col_) + 1] = 1self.matrix[row][min(col, col_) + 1] = 0else:visit_flag[min(row, row_) + 1][col] = 1self.matrix[min(row, row_) + 1][col] = 0dfs(row_, col_)dfs(self.destination[0], self.destination[1] - 1)self.matrix[self.start[0], self.start[1] + 1] = 0# 虽然说是prim算法,但是我感觉更像随机广度优先算法def generate_matrix_prim(self):# 地图初始化,并将出口和入口处的值设置为0self.matrix = -np.ones((self.height, self.width))def check(row, col):temp_sum = 0for d in [[0, 1], [0, -1], [1, 0], [-1, 0]]:temp_sum += self.matrix[row + d[0]][col + d[1]]return temp_sum < -3queue = []row, col = (np.random.randint(1, self.height - 1) // 2) * 2 + 1, (np.random.randint(1, self.width - 1) // 2) * 2 + 1queue.append((row, col, -1, -1))while len(queue) != 0:row, col, r_, c_ = queue.pop(np.random.randint(0, len(queue)))if check(row, col):self.matrix[row, col] = 0if r_ != -1 and row == r_:self.matrix[row][min(col, c_) + 1] = 0elif r_ != -1 and col == c_:self.matrix[min(row, r_) + 1][col] = 0for d in [[0, 2], [0, -2], [2, 0], [-2, 0]]:row_, col_ = row + d[0], col + d[1]if row_ > 0 and row_ < self.height - 1 and col_ > 0 and col_ < self.width - 1 and self.matrix[row_][col_] == -1:queue.append((row_, col_, row, col))self.matrix[self.start[0], self.start[1]] = 0self.matrix[self.destination[0], self.destination[1]] = 0# 递归切分算法,还有问题,现在不可用def generate_matrix_split(self):# 地图初始化,并将出口和入口处的值设置为0self.matrix = -np.zeros((self.height, self.width))self.matrix[0, :] = -1self.matrix[self.height - 1, :] = -1self.matrix[:, 0] = -1self.matrix[:, self.width - 1] = -1# 随机生成位于(start, end)之间的偶数def get_random(start, end):rand = np.random.randint(start, end)if rand & 0x1 == 0:return randreturn get_random(start, end)# split函数的四个参数分别是左上角的行数、列数,右下角的行数、列数,墙壁只能在偶数行,偶数列def split(lr, lc, rr, rc):if rr - lr < 2 or rc - lc < 2:return# 生成墙壁,墙壁只能是偶数点cur_row, cur_col = get_random(lr, rr), get_random(lc, rc)for i in range(lc, rc + 1):self.matrix[cur_row][i] = -1for i in range(lr, rr + 1):self.matrix[i][cur_col] = -1# 挖穿三面墙得到连通图,挖孔的点只能是偶数点wall_list = [("left", cur_row, [lc + 1, cur_col - 1]),("right", cur_row, [cur_col + 1, rc - 1]), ("top", cur_col, [lr + 1, cur_row - 1]),("down", cur_col, [cur_row + 1, rr - 1])]random.shuffle(wall_list)for wall in wall_list[:-1]:if wall[2][1] - wall[2][0] < 1:continueif wall[0] in ["left", "right"]:self.matrix[wall[1], get_random(wall[2][0], wall[2][1] + 1) + 1] = 0else:self.matrix[get_random(wall[2][0], wall[2][1] + 1), wall[1] + 1] = 0# self.print_matrix()# time.sleep(1)# 递归split(lr + 2, lc + 2, cur_row - 2, cur_col - 2)split(lr + 2, cur_col + 2, cur_row - 2, rc - 2)split(cur_row + 2, lc + 2, rr - 2, cur_col - 2)split(cur_row + 2, cur_col + 2, rr - 2, rc - 2)	self.matrix[self.start[0], self.start[1]] = 0self.matrix[self.destination[0], self.destination[1]] = 0split(0, 0, self.height - 1, self.width - 1)# 最小生成树算法-kruskal(选边法)思想生成迷宫地图,这种实现方法最复杂。def generate_matrix_kruskal(self):# 地图初始化,并将出口和入口处的值设置为0self.matrix = -np.ones((self.height, self.width))def check(row, col):ans, counter = [], 0for d in [[0, 1], [0, -1], [1, 0], [-1, 0]]:row_, col_ = row + d[0], col + d[1]if row_ > 0 and row_ < self.height - 1 and col_ > 0 and col_ < self.width - 1 and self.matrix[row_, col_] == -1:ans.append([d[0] * 2, d[1] * 2])counter += 1if counter <= 1:return []return ans	nodes = set()row = 1while row < self.height:col = 1while col < self.width:self.matrix[row, col] = 0nodes.add((row, col))col += 2row += 2unionset = UnionSet(nodes)while unionset.count > 1:row, col = nodes.pop()directions = check(row, col)if len(directions):random.shuffle(directions)for d in directions:row_, col_ = row + d[0], col + d[1]if unionset.find((row, col)) == unionset.find((row_, col_)):continuenodes.add((row, col))unionset.count -= 1unionset.union((row, col), (row_, col_))if row == row_:self.matrix[row][min(col, col_) + 1] = 0else:self.matrix[min(row, row_) + 1][col] = 0breakself.matrix[self.start[0], self.start[1]] = 0self.matrix[self.destination[0], self.destination[1]] = 0# 迷宫寻路算法dfsdef find_path_dfs(self, destination):visited = [[0 for i in range(self.width)] for j in range(self.height)]def dfs(path):visited[path[-1][0]][path[-1][1]] = 1if path[-1][0] == destination[0] and path[-1][1] == destination[1]:self.path = path[:]returnfor d in [[0, 1], [0, -1], [1, 0], [-1, 0]]:row_, col_ = path[-1][0] + d[0], path[-1][1] + d[1]if row_ > 0 and row_ < self.height - 1 and col_ > 0 and col_ < self.width and visited[row_][col_] == 0 and self.matrix[row_][col_] == 0:dfs(path + [[row_, col_]])dfs([[self.start[0], self.start[1]]])if __name__ == '__main__':maze = Maze(51, 51)maze.generate_matrix_kruskal()maze.print_matrix()maze.find_path_dfs(maze.destination)print("answer", maze.path)maze.print_matrix()
  • 1

迷宫可视化源码 maze.py

import tkinter as tkfrom mazeGenerator import Mazeimport timeimport copyimport numpy as npimport mathimport threadingdef draw_cell(canvas, row, col, color="#F2F2F2"): x0, y0 = col * cell_width, row * cell_width x1, y1 = x0 + cell_width, y0 + cell_width canvas.create_rectangle(x0, y0, x1, y1, fill = color, outline =color, width = 0)def draw_path(canvas, matrix, row, col, color, line_color): # 列 if row + 1 < rows and matrix[row - 1][col] >= 1 and matrix[row + 1][col] >= 1: x0, y0 = col * cell_width + 2 * cell_width / 5, row * cell_width x1, y1 = x0 + cell_width / 5, y0 + cell_width # 行 elif col + 1 < cols and matrix[row][col - 1] >= 1 and matrix[row][col + 1] >= 1: x0, y0 = col * cell_width, row * cell_width + 2 * cell_width / 5 x1, y1 = x0 + cell_width, y0 + cell_width / 5 # 左上角 elif col + 1 < cols and row + 1 < rows and matrix[row][col + 1] >= 1 and matrix[row + 1][col] >= 1: x0, y0 = col * cell_width + 2 * cell_width / 5, row * cell_width + 2 * cell_width / 5 x1, y1 = x0 + 3 * cell_width / 5, y0 + cell_width / 5 canvas.create_rectangle(x0, y0, x1, y1, fill = color, outline = line_color, width = 0) x0, y0 = col * cell_width + 2 * cell_width / 5, row * cell_width + 2 * cell_width / 5 x1, y1 = x0 + cell_width / 5, y0 + 3 * cell_width / 5 # 右上角 elif row + 1 < rows and matrix[row][col - 1] >= 1 and matrix[row + 1][col] >= 1: x0, y0 = col * cell_width, row * cell_width + 2 * cell_width / 5 x1, y1 = x0 + 3 * cell_width / 5, y0 + cell_width / 5 canvas.create_rectangle(x0, y0, x1, y1, fill = color, outline = line_color, width = 0) x0, y0 = col * cell_width + 2 * cell_width / 5, row * cell_width + 2 * cell_width / 5 x1, y1 = x0 + cell_width / 5, y0 + 3 * cell_width / 5 # 左下角 elif col + 1 < cols and matrix[row - 1][col] >= 1 and matrix[row][col + 1] >= 1: x0, y0 = col * cell_width + 2 * cell_width / 5, row * cell_width x1, y1 = x0 + cell_width / 5, y0 + 3 * cell_width / 5 canvas.create_rectangle(x0, y0, x1, y1, fill = color, outline = line_color, width = 0) x0, y0 = col * cell_width + 2 * cell_width / 5, row * cell_width + 2 * cell_width / 5 x1, y1 = x0 + 3 * cell_width / 5, y0 + cell_width / 5 # 右下角 elif matrix[row - 1][col] >= 1 and matrix[row][col - 1] >= 1: x0, y0 = col * cell_width, row * cell_width + 2 * cell_width / 5 x1, y1 = x0 + 3 * cell_width / 5, y0 + cell_width / 5 canvas.create_rectangle(x0, y0, x1, y1, fill = color, outline = line_color, width = 0) x0, y0 = col * cell_width + 2 * cell_width / 5, row * cell_width x1, y1 = x0 + cell_width / 5, y0 + 3 * cell_width / 5 else: x0, y0 = col * cell_width + 2 * cell_width / 5, row * cell_width + 2 * cell_width / 5 x1, y1 = x0 + cell_width / 5, y0 + cell_width / 5 canvas.create_rectangle(x0, y0, x1, y1, fill = color, outline = line_color, width = 0)def draw_maze(canvas, matrix, path, moves): """ 根据matrix中每个位置的值绘图: -1: 墙壁 0: 空白 1: 参考路径 2: 移动过的位置 """ for r in range(rows): for c in range(cols): if matrix[r][c] == 0: draw_cell(canvas, r, c) elif matrix[r][c] == -1: draw_cell(canvas, r, c, '#525288') elif matrix[r][c] == 1: draw_cell(canvas, r, c) draw_path(canvas, matrix, r, c, '#bc84a8', '#bc84a8') elif matrix[r][c] == 2: draw_cell(canvas, r, c) draw_path(canvas, matrix, r, c, '#ee3f4d', '#ee3f4d') for p in path: matrix[p[0]][p[1]] = 1 for move in moves: matrix[move[0]][move[1]] = 2def update_maze(canvas, matrix, path, moves): canvas.delete("all") matrix = copy.copy(matrix) for p in path: matrix[p[0]][p[1]] = 1 for move in moves: matrix[move[0]][move[1]] = 2 row, col = movement_list[-1] colors = ['#525288', '#F2F2F2', '#525288', '#F2F2F2', '#525288', '#F2F2F2', '#525288', '#F2F2F2'] if level > 2: colors = ['#232323', '#252525', '#2a2a32', '#424242', '#434368', '#b4b4b4', '#525288', '#F2F2F2'] for r in range(rows): for c in range(cols): distance = (row - r) * (row - r) + (col - c) * (col - c) if distance >= 100: color = colors[0:2] elif distance >= 60: color = colors[2:4] elif distance >= 30: color = colors[4:6] else: color = colors[6:8] if matrix[r][c] == 0: draw_cell(canvas, r, c, color[1]) elif matrix[r][c] == -1: draw_cell(canvas, r, c, color[0]) elif matrix[r][c] == 1: draw_cell(canvas, r, c, color[1]) draw_path(canvas, matrix, r, c, '#bc84a8', '#bc84a8') elif matrix[r][c] == 2: draw_cell(canvas, r, c, color[1]) draw_path(canvas, matrix, r, c, '#ee3f4d', '#ee3f4d') def check_reach(): global next_maze_flag if movement_list[-1] == maze.destination: print("Congratulations! You reach the goal! The step used: {}".format(click_counter)) x0, y0 = width / 2 - 200, 30 x1, y1 = x0 + 400, y0 + 40 canvas.create_rectangle(x0, y0, x1, y1, fill = '#F2F2F2', outline ='#525288', width = 3) canvas.create_text(width / 2, y0 + 20, text = "Congratulations! You reach the goal! Steps used: {}".format(click_counter), fill = "#525288") next_maze_flag = Truedef _eventHandler(event): global movement_list global click_counter global next_maze_flag global level if not next_maze_flag and event.keysym in ['Left', 'Right', 'Up', 'Down']: click_counter += 1 windows.title("Maze Level-{} Steps-{}".format(level, click_counter)) cur_pos = movement_list[-1] ops = {'Left': [0, -1], 'Right': [0, 1], 'Up': [-1, 0], 'Down': [1, 0]} r_, c_ = cur_pos[0] + ops[event.keysym][0], cur_pos[1] + ops[event.keysym][1] if len(movement_list) > 1 and [r_, c_] == movement_list[-2]: movement_list.pop() while True: cur_pos = movement_list[-1] counter = 0 for d in [[0, 1], [0, -1], [1, 0], [-1, 0]]: r_, c_ = cur_pos[0] + d[0], cur_pos[1] + d[1] if c_ >= 0 and maze.matrix[r_][c_] == 0: counter += 1 if counter != 2: break movement_list.pop() elif r_ < maze.height and c_ < maze.width and maze.matrix[r_][c_] == 0: while True: movement_list.append([r_, c_]) temp_list = [] for d in [[0, 1], [0, -1], [1, 0], [-1, 0]]: r__, c__ = r_ + d[0], c_ + d[1] if c__ < maze.width and maze.matrix[r__][c__] == 0 and [r__, c__] != cur_pos: temp_list.append([r__, c__]) if len(temp_list) != 1: break cur_pos = [r_, c_] r_, c_ = temp_list[0] update_maze(canvas, maze.matrix, maze.path, movement_list) check_reach() elif next_maze_flag: next_maze_flag = False movement_list = [maze.start] click_counter = 0 maze.generate_matrix_kruskal() maze.path = [] draw_maze(canvas, maze.matrix, maze.path, movement_list) level += 1 def _paint(event): x, y = math.floor((event.y - 1) / cell_width), math.floor((event.x - 1) / cell_width) if maze.matrix[x][y] == 0: maze.find_path_dfs([x, y]) update_maze(canvas, maze.matrix, maze.path, movement_list)def _reset(event): maze.path = [] update_maze(canvas, maze.matrix, maze.path, movement_list)if __name__ == '__main__': # 基础参数 cell_width = 20 rows = 37 cols = 51 height = cell_width * rows width = cell_width * cols level = 1 click_counter = 0 next_maze_flag = False windows = tk.Tk() windows.title("Maze") canvas = tk.Canvas(windows, background="#F2F2F2", width = width, height = height) canvas.pack() maze = Maze(cols, rows) movement_list = [maze.start] maze.generate_matrix_kruskal() draw_maze(canvas, maze.matrix, maze.path, movement_list) canvas.bind("<Button-1>", _paint) canvas.bind("<Button-3>", _reset) canvas.bind_all("<KeyPress>", _eventHandler) windows.mainloop()

将以上两个代码分别保存到mazeGenerator.py 和maze.py,确保两个py文件在同一文件夹下,运行maze.py即可。

(暂时 完)

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